In this paper, we report and expand on research questions designed to improve undergraduate engineering education. These questions are based on a yearlong process that included a three-step Delphi study and a subsequent two-day workshop. The Delphi study, conducted during winter and spring of 2015, engaged subject matter experts from engineering education research and engineering academic administration. It resulted in the formation of three writing teams, one each for the critical areas of improving student learning in undergraduate engineering education, improving and diversifying pathways of engineering students to increase retention, and using technology to enhance learning and engagement in engineering. Participants in the two-day workshop, held in October 2015, were chosen for their expertise in one or more of the three areas, such that the workshop could explore priorities for research that would address each of these areas. Using results from the Delphi study and the workshop, the writing teams worked to synthesize and expand on the research questions to guide future work. This paper addresses the first area: improving student learning in undergraduate engineering education.